(note: please bookmark the blog for the update and coming post)


Clarifying the difference between managers 


leaders is important, since although several 


 and practitioners still use the two concepts 

interchangeably, they have very different 


First, managers are usually chosen and 

                   appointed to 

their positions, while leaders are more likely


emerge from the work group(robbins and 

                     coulter 2002).

 Second the central distinction between a 

manager and a leader is that managers 


and direct others due to their recognized 

                    power, which 

is inherent in their position,

while leaders  go beyond that by inspiring

 employees to  work towards a shared goal.

Third, although leaders anticipate change 

whilst setting direction for organization,

managers focus more on generating results 

than on forecasting and dealing with change

(kotter 1990). According to managers are 

interested in how things are organized and 


while leaders are more concerned with


(Bennis 1989 kotter 1990 zaleznik 1977)

Heller and van til (1982) point out that 


leaders need a followership, In other words

it is the willingness of people to follow that 


an individual into a leader. However, there 

is a great 

difference in the way leaders and mangers 

see their roles. 

 For instance managers tend to bring 

people together to implement their plans as 


as possible, whilst leaders strive to align 

their subordinates to their vision(kotter 1990).


So what are the key ingredients of leadership?

Weihrich and koontz (1993) argue that 

leadership consists of four main elements:

@Power : leaders have power over their


@Understanding of people: leaders understand 

what motivates people.

they are aware of their followers needs

 ambitions and requirements.

@Ability to inspire: Leaders are able to envision

 the future of their respective

industries and inspire the rest of the 


to follow their vision and achieve

common goals.

@ A specific style: not all leaders share the 

same style. Some are 

more directive other are

more participative in their decision-making. 

some place an emphasis on performance 


focus on motivating followers and creating

 cult-like environments.

A longstanding question is what constitutes 

an effective leader?

In order to shed light on this  question the

 following section offers an historical overviews 

of traditional and contemporary leadership theories.

 We consider what makes an effective leader

and discuss the different styles of leadership that are

 deemed appropriate to a range of different contexts

and situations.

Trait approaches to leadership

Several studies were conducted up to the 1940s with

the aim of discovering leaders proposed extraordinary 

abilites. These early studies, however proved 

Unsuccessful and they were criticized for failing to find

Any traits that predicted leadership achievement or that

Distinguished a leader from a non-leader (stogdill 1974

Nevertheless the  search for leadership traits has 

Continued and some scholars have found a consistent

Pattern. Kirkpatrick and Locke(1991) for instance

Argue that the six common traits associated with

Effective leadership are:

1-Drive.Leaders exhibit a relatively high degree of 

Achievement. They are ambitious,they are tirelessly

Persistent in their actions and display initiative.

2-The desire to lead. Leaders are willing to influence 

And lead others and are prepared to take responsibility

For their actions.

3-Honesty and integrity. Effective leaders tend to build

Trusting relationship with their followers by being 

Truthful and by showing great consistency between

Their words and their actions.

4-Self-confidence. Competent leaders have a belief in

Themselves and this allows them to convince their 

Followers about the suitability and validity of their 

Goals. Decisions or actions. Leaders riddled with self

Doubt are less likely to gain other people's trust since

They may find it hard to take the necessary action.

5-Intelligence. Effective leaders are intelligent enough

To collect, synthesize and interpret large amount of

Data. The leaders role demands a sufficient level of 

Intelligence to devise appropriate strategies, solve

Problems and make correct decisions.

6-job relevant knowledge. Competent leaders also tend 

To be very knowledgeable about their industry, 

Organization and relevant technical issues. It is the 

Depth of knowledge that they have that allows them

To put together well informed decision and to recognize

Their implications.

Post a Comment